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Advantages of biomass pyrolysis gasification technology

“Drilling wood to make fire” is the first fire of human beings, which uses biomass energy. This fire has lasted for thousands of years and has achieved human civilization. With the development and ...
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“Drilling wood to make fire” is the first fire of human beings, which uses biomass energy. This fire has lasted for thousands of years and has achieved human civilization. With the development and utilization of many primary energy sources such as coal, oil and natural gas, people are less and less dependent on the most traditional biomass energy. Now this earliest energy utilization method has become a kind of “new energy”. With the over-exploitation of primary energy, people began to think about returning to nature and returning to nature. The utilization of biomass energy has become one of the focus topics again. In 2020, the country has put forward the task goal of “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality”. Under these specific backgrounds, the corresponding biomass energy utilization technologies are also emerging one after another. “Substance pyrolysis and gasification” technology is one of them, and it is also a relatively cutting-edge technology for biomass energy utilization.


Biomass pyrolysis gasification technology is a process of producing combustible gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and other combustible gases by causing biomass to undergo a series of redox reactions in an oxygen-free or anoxic environment. Energy equipment provides thermal energy. This technology is also known as two-stage combustion technology. Strictly speaking, this is also a combustion technology, so what advantages does this technology have over traditional combustion technology?


In fact, biomass gasification technology is a sublimation of people’s direct combustion technology, and it is a manifestation of people’s refined application of energy, because biomass gasification is a poly-generation technology. The reaction can simultaneously obtain several products such as gas, biomass charcoal, wood vinegar and wood tar. Accordingly, the author summarizes the two main advantages of this technology: environmental protection and economy.


First of all, let’s talk about environmental protection. In recent years, the country has made great efforts to control environmental protection, especially the atmosphere. The main pollutants controlled are: particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfides, carbon monoxide and soot blackness. Biomass pyrolysis gasification technology has certain advantages in the control of several pollutants. This technology belongs to anoxic layer combustion technology, the reaction is slow, and the concentration of particulate matter in the generated gas is much lower than that of direct combustion technology. Adding a dust collector can reach 50mg/m³. The biomass gas produced by this technology has a relatively low calorific value, and the combustion temperature is lower than that of direct combustion, which has a good inhibitory effect on the control of nitrogen oxides, because nitrogen oxides are mainly at high temperature and with a relatively high peroxygen coefficient. It is produced in a large environment. Generally, nitrogen oxides can be controlled within 150mg/m³ without adding a denitrification device. Because there is very little sulfur in biomass fuels such as wood chips and straws, the sulfides produced after combustion are naturally less, generally within 30mg/m³, which can fully meet the national control standards. As long as the combustion is sufficient, the two indicators of carbon monoxide and soot blackness are within the control range of the national standard.


The technical and economic advantages are also obvious, because the products produced in the gasification process can be turned into commodities or further processed into commodities with higher added value. For example, one ton of wood chips (market price of 500 yuan) can generate gas with about 70% of the heat energy through pyrolysis and gasification, and the calorific value is about 2.8 million kcal, which is equivalent to the calorific value of 330m³ of natural gas (the market price is about 1,000 yuan); It can also produce charcoal with a weight ratio of about 20-25%, that is, at least 200kg of charcoal (market price of about 300 yuan); produce about 15% of thin wood vinegar, that is, 150kg (market price of about 90 yuan); produce wood tar The weight ratio is about 5%, that is, about 50 kilograms, (the market price is about 30 yuan); the direct benefit of these products is 1,420 yuan, excluding the fuel cost, one ton of wood chips can generate a net benefit of 920 yuan. If these products are further processed, the added value can be increased several times. For example, the use of charcoal can make activated carbon or carbon-based fertilizer, and the added value can be more than doubled.


People’s use of biomass energy will not stop. This is a gift from nature. We will only cherish it more and use it more carefully, so that biomass, a renewable energy source, can achieve greater value. (Most of the above data are from Haiqi Environmental Protection Company, which has more than 20 years of experience in biomass pyrolysis and gasification technology, and are for reference only.)

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